Getting ready for the Canadian Citizenship Test (History)

I finally recieved an invitation letter to sit my Canadian Citizenship test early January 2015. I am very excited and have started to prepare myself for the test. The main resource recommended for preparation for this test is a book called Discover Canada. Canadian citizenship and Immigration sends each applicant a paper copy of this book, when they initiate the processing of the applications.

I started reading this book today, and surprisingly I am enjoying it. It’s a great way to know more about the country I’m living in. I know more about the history of Canada now and some of the terms people use are more meaningful to me now (such as the Great Depression).

Anyway, I decided to put my notes up here to help the future applicants with their preparation process. Today the focus is the history of Canada:

Important dates for Canadian Citizenship test

1497 exploration of the North America area started, Newfoundland was claimed for England.
1550: Name Kanata was heard.
1604, first European settlement north of Florida
1608 fortress in Quebec
1701 peace between French and Iroquois
1774 Quebec Act (Religious freedom for Catholics, permitted them to hold public office, French Civil law while maintaining British Criminal Law).
1776 separation of the state
1792 black Nova Scotians left to establish Freetown, Sierra Leone (West Africa), a new British colony for freed slaves.
Act of 1791: Upper and Lower Canada (Name of Canada Official, legislative assemblies elected by people.
1793 Upper Canada became the first province to move toward abolition of slavery
1833: Abolishment of Slavery through the Empire.
1812: The war between US and Canada in June.
1813: Americans burned the government house and Parliament building in York (Toronto).
1814: Canadians Burned down White House
1837-1838: Armed Rebellions
1840: upper and lower Canada were united as the province of Canada
1847-1848: Nova Scotia full responsible government
1864-1867: Confederation
1867- British North America Act
July 1 1867: The dominion of Canada was officially born.
1867: Canada’s first prime minister
1869: Metis took over Fort Garry.
1870: Establishment of Manitoba (because of the war with Metis)
1873: Establishment of NWMP: North West Mounted Police by prime minister Macdonald
1914: Start of world war I
1916: Women got the right to vote in Manitoba
1918: End of world war I (November 11)
1917: Federal right to vote for women to nurses then … by 1918 almost all women had the right to vote.
1921: Assignment of national colors.
1940: Qubebec granted the right of voting to women.
1929: Stock Market crashed: great depression of dirty thirties. Farmers in west were hit by low grain prices and drought.
1934: Bank of Canada was created.
1944- June 6, d Day
1945: end of world war II

Important people:

  • John Cabot: First person who draw the map of Canada’s east coast
  •  Jacues Cartier: First to European to explore ST Lawrence River and set eyes on present day Quebec city
  •  John Graves Simcoe First Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada and abolished slavery
  •  Shawnee led by Chief Tecumseh: First Nations helped Canadians with the war with the states
  •  Major-General Sir Isaac Brock : Captured Detroit in 1812 war
  •  Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de Salaberry: Turned back 4000 American Invaders south of Montreal
  •  Major-General Robert Ross: Burned down white house
  •  Lord Durham: Suggested that upper and lower Canada should be merged, also suggested to assimilate into English speaking Protestant culture
  • Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine: a champion of democracy and French language rights became the first leader of a responsible government (like prime minister) in Canada.
  •  King George V: assigned Canada’s national colours (white and red) in 1921, the colours of our national flag today His face used to be on $1 bills
  •  Sir John Alexander Macdonald: a Father of Confederation became Canada’s first Prime Minister. Born in Scotland
  •  Louis Riel: father of Manitoba
  •  Gabriel Dumont: the Métis’ greatest military leader
  •  Sir Wilfrid Laurier: became the first French-Canadian prime minister since Confederation and encouraged immigration to the West. His portrait is on the $5 bill
  •  Agnes Macphail: a farmer and teacher, became the first woman MP in 1921
  •  Dr. Emily Stowe: First woman to practice medicine in Canada and the leader of women’s suffrage movement to gain voting.

Important locations:

  • First place John Cabot set foot on: Newfoundland and Capre Breton
  •  Democracy: Nova Scotia first, then PE, then New Brunswic
  •  Rebellions started in Montreal and Toronto
  •  The first colony to attain full responsible government was Nova Scotia
  •  The first province to grant voting to women was Manitoba

Important Notes:

Country of Canada first included: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. The government had two levels: Provincial and Federal. Each province would elect its own legislature and have control of such areas as education and health.

July 1 was initially called the dominion day.

Sir Leonard Tilley, an elected official and Father of Confederation from New Brunswick, suggested the term Dominion of Canada in 1864. He was inspired by Psalm 72 in the Bible.

Parliament has recognized January 11 as Sir John A. Macdonald Day. His portrait is on the $10 bill

Sir Wilfrid Laurier became the first French-Canadian prime minister since Confederation and encouraged immigration to the West. His portrait is on the $5 bill.

First world war: Canadian corps: around 600,000 volunteers.

60,000 Canadians were killed and 170,000 were wounded in World War I.

Bluebirds: Nurses served in Royal Canadian Army.

After the First World War, the British Empire evolved into a free association of states known as the British Commonwealth of Nations. Canada remains a leading member of the Commonwealth to this day, together with other successor states of the Empire such as India, Australia, New Zealand, and several African and Caribbean countries.

At the time of Second World War Newfoundland was a separate British entity.

44,000 Canadians were killed were killed in Second World War.

At the end of the Second World War, Canada had the third-largest navy in the world.


Expansion of the Dominion

1867 — Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
1870 — Manitoba, Northwest Territories (N.W.T.)
1871 — British Columbia
1873 — Prince Edward Island
1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands (to N.W.T.)
1898 — Yukon Territory
1905 — Alberta, Saskatchewan
1949 — Newfoundland and Labrador
1999 — Nunavut

Portraits:

$1: King George V.
$5:Sir Wilfrid Laurier
$10: Sir John A. Macdonald

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